Sustainability

Sustainability is the ability to meet the demands of delivering products and services now, without compromising the future of our natural resources and the demands of future generations. Generally, the term sustainability relates to the integration of economic, social and environmental concerns. It requires a collective effort of individuals, organisations and governments to protect and grow our natural resources; rather than deplete or permanently damage them.

Paper is made from wood, a completely renewable resource, and is therefore inherently sustainable. For paper to be considered sustainable, it must be made from wood sourced from responsible forests; meaning managed plantations and non-old growth forests where trees are replanted after felling. The wood is then converted into pulp and eventually paper. To complete this process, paper mills need to minimise their use of energy, chemicals and water and ensure that they adopt sound practices with renewable energy policies.

Environmental sustainability is as much about energy, water and air as it is about paper fibre. The paper industry, including forestry, pulp providers, paper mills, merchants and printers are working together to reduce its total environmental impact.

Yes, paper is made from organic material ie wood, a completely renewable resource. For paper to be considered sustainable, it must be made from wood sourced from responsible forests. Today’s standard in the forestry industry is high. Managed plantations and non-old growth forests continuously replant trees after felling. As young trees grow, they produce oxygen and absorb carbon from the atmosphere. The wood waste (such as wood chips and sawdust) left behind from timber manufacturing, is converted into pulp and eventually paper (see ´How can paper be sustainable?´).

Currently, there are several reputable third-party organisations that have strict programs in place for the verification and certification of wood sources. These organisations, including Forest Stewardship Council and the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification, work with wood suppliers around the world to ensure strict guidelines are met to monitor and protect the economic, social and environmental factors surrounding the supply of wood products. Principles and guidelines are applied throughout the entire life cycle of wood products;from plantations, to manufacturing, to end production of the product. Certifications are then given to products, including paper, that meet these requirements.

A carbon footprint is a measure of the impact of activities by organisations and individuals on the environment. It measures the greenhouse gases (carbon emissions) produced through the burning of fossil fuels for electricity, manufacturing and transportation. It is measured in units of tonnes/kg of carbon dioxide.

Windpower refers to the use of wind-generated electricity.  Wind energy is emission free and completely renewable.  This form of electricity is generated by resources that produce little or no pollution.

Carbon neutral is net zero carbon emissions that are balanced by offsetting the measured amount of carbon released into the atmosphere by verifiable credits (see What is a carbon footprint?).

As our everyday activities produce carbon dioxide emissions, programs and initiatives have been put in place by organisations (and individuals) to reduce, offset and manage greenhouse gases; whilst restoring natural resources. An offset is an initiative that funds equivalent carbon savings that are verifiable and traceable to ensure efficacy.

For example, in 2007 Mohawk Paper  joined the EPA Climate Leaders program that requires its members to measure the greenhouse gases they produce, and develop plans to reduce them over a five-year period. To do this, Mohawk Paper have applied practices that reduce their energy consumption, and offset them by purchasing verified emission reduction credits (VERs) that fund beneficial, emission-free energy projects such as wind farms. This results in their ability to produce carbon neutral papers, such as Strathmore Premium Super Smooth, Strathmore Premium Wove, Strathmore Premium Cambric and Strathmore Premium Enhance stocked by K.W.Doggett Fine Paper. Since this time, we’ve had numerous products become carbon neutral and each paper has its own story.

Carbon neutral paper means the paper has been manufactured by a paper mill that has programs in place to measure, minimise and/or offset all of their carbon emissions to a rating of zero. K.W.Doggett Fine Paper offer a selection of carbon neutral made papers, including Strathmore Premium Super Smooth, Strathmore Premium Wove, Strathmore Premium Cambric, Strathmore Premium Enhance, Conqueror, KaskadSaxton, Tablex and Impact. As an example, Impact is manufactured carbon neutral and delivered to K.W.Doggett Fine Paper warehouses nationally.

Yes, for some paper products we can, but not all. Please enquire with your fine paper specialist before you purchase to determine whether that paper has a full life cycle analysis.

An easy way to demonstrate to your customers that you are printing on carbon neutral paper, is by using our ‘Paper Made Carbon Neutral’ or ´Certified Carbon Neutral´ logo. It’s important that we provide your customers with the most appropriate information about your job as ‘carbon neutral’ logos can be misleading, meaning they imply that the entire print and delivery process is carbon neutral. For example, while the job may have been printed on carbon neutral paper, the print and delivery process may not be. We can also provide you with on-product claims or statements such as ‘Printed on paper that has [been manufactured to be carbon neutral]’ or ‘[been carbon offset]’.

For further information, contact your fine paper specialist or the Victorian marketing department.

Currently, there are several reputable third-party organisations that have strict programs in place for the verification and certification of wood sources. These organisations work with wood suppliers around the world to ensure strict guidelines are met to monitor and protect the economic, social and environmental factors surrounding the supply of wood products.

These organisations, including the Forest Stewardship Council and the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification, apply these principles and guidelines throughout the entire lifecycle of wood products; from plantation, to manufacturing, to end production of the product. Certifications are then given to products, including paper, that meet these requirements.

Currently, there are several reputable third-party organisations that have strict programs in place for the verification and certification of wood sources. These organisations work with wood suppliers around the world to ensure strict guidelines are met to monitor and protect the economic, social and environmental factors surrounding the supply of wood products.

These organisations, including the Forest Stewardship Council and the Programme for the Endorsement of Forestry Certification apply these principles and guidelines throughout the entire lifecycle of wood products; from plantation, to manufacturing, to end production of the product. Certifications are then given to products including paper, that meet these requirements.

Currently, there are several reputable third-party organisations that have strict programs in place for the verification and certification of wood sources. These organisations work with wood suppliers around the world to ensure strict guidelines are met to monitor and protect the economic, social and environmental factors surrounding the supply of wood products.

These organisations, including the Forest Stewardship Council and the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification, apply these principles and guidelines throughout the entire lifecycle of wood products; from plantation, to manufacturing, to end production of the product. Certifications are then given to products, including paper, that meet these requirements.

The purpose of a Chain of Custody is to enable the end-user to trace the origins of wood products back to their original source.

Organisations like the FSC and PEFC adopt a Chain of Custody principle for the certification of the products that they endorse. This means that the certification must be applied throughout the entire lifecycle of the product; from plantation to paper manufacturer, to merchant and printer. If any of these parties do not hold the certification, then the product is not recognised as a fully certified product by the authorising group.

If the paper product you have chosen is certified under the FSC or PEFC schemes then you are eligible to use the appropriate logo on your print job.

Both the FSC and PEFC logos are trademarked to maintain the integrity of these groups and the products that they endorse. Accredited printers may use the authorising logo on their print job once they have applied for permission from the appropriate organisation. Approval for logo usage is straight forward and takes up to 24 hours to complete. Applications must be submitted for each individual print job.

K.W.Doggett Fine Paper’s ‘Responsible Forestry Practices’ logo is available for use on your print job for products that meet or exceed legal requirements for wood procurement.

The ‘Responsible Forestry Practices’ logo is the property of K.W.Doggett Fine Paper and may only be used on eligible products. Check inside the product swatch cover, or download the appropriate Product Profile from our Paper Range to determine if your selected product is eligible to use this logo.

‘Mix’ or ‘Mixed Sources’ means that the wood fibre used in the papers manufacture comes from a variety of responsible sources, not just those that are certified by the Forest Stewardship Council. As a consumer, you can still be assured that ‘FSC Mix’ products are 100% compliant with standards that ensure responsible practices are maintained throughout the pape’rs manufacture.

  1. FSC Mix means that the wood has come from a combination of FSC certified forests, FSC controlled wood or eligible recycled fibre.
  2. FSC controlled wood standards require that the following sources of wood are not included in the product:
  • Illegally harvested wood;
  • Wood harvested that violates traditional and civil right;
  • Wood harvested in forests with high conservation values (areas particularly worthy of protection;
  • Wood harvested from areas where genetically modified trees are planted.

Yes, additional information about FSC may accompany the FSC logo; however this must also be approved by your certification body (CB). In referring to FSC or to FSC certified products, the preferred term is “responsible”, e.g. “responsible forestry” not “sustainable forestry”.

For assistance in writing an environmental tagline, please contact your K.W.Doggett Fine Paper specialist.

Recycled paper is manufactured from previously used paper and packaging that is collected and re-pulped to create waste fibre that can be re-manufactured into new paper. There are two types of waste fibres available, post consumer waste fibre and pre-consumer waste fibre:

Post Consumer Waste Fibre (PCW) is considered the truest form of recycled fibre, as it is manufactured from paper that has been recovered from consumer use, such as households and businesses. As the original paper has often been printed on, it needs to be de-inked (colour and ink removed using a chemical ink process) before it can be re-produced into paper again.

Pre-Consumer Waste Fibre is manufactured from a paper mill’s off cuts and waste and printers trimmings. As the original paper has not been printed on, it does not require de-inking.

The main benefits of recycled paper are that it is manufactured from used paper and packaging, that when disposed of, would normally go to landfill. Landfill is one of the largest sources of carbon emissions.

Virgin tree fibre will always be needed for paper making. Over time, paper that is continually recycled leads to a break down in the fibre it contains. This means that the fibres become too fragile to reproduce and virgin fibre must be introduced into the process, to maintain the strength and quality of the fibre.

Demand

  • There is not enough recycled waste paper to meet the world’s paper demands.
  • There are not enough de-inking plants around the world to satisfy the requirements. Whilst de-inking is still less energy intensive than turning virgin wood into pulp, it still requires a large chemical and energy output.

Economic and Environmental

  • High transportation requirements (small waste pick-ups) can lead to higher carbon emissions and higher economical costs.
  • It can be difficult to trace the collected product and where it was originally made; therefore the product may not meet the paper manufacturers environmental requirements.

Quality

  • Over time, paper that is continually recycled leads to a break down in the fibre it contains. This means that the fibres become too fragile to reproduce and virgin fibre must be used.

Australians generally use around 3.5 millions tonnes of paper every year. Just under half of this, around 1.6 million tonnes of waste paper, is collected each year. Roughly two-thirds of the waste paper collected is from boxes, cartons and other forms of packing paper. Almost one-third of the waste is from old newspapers alone.

Collecting this paper saves the cities and towns we live in about $80 million per year in reduced rubbish disposal costs. Like to know more? Visit the Packaging Council of Australia website.

These days, you should expect similar results from recycled papers as you do from virgin fibre papers. This is because many of the recycled paper manufacturers now offer bright white, clean papers. Traditionally, recycled ‘looking’ grades are also still available. Which one you choose simply depends on the look you prefer for your job.

Uncoated papers
100% post consumer waste recycled papers generally have a subtle vellum/offset finish, rather than a super smooth finish eg. ImpactEnvirocare 100% Recycled and Conqueror 100% Recycled. Papers that are made with a combination of both recycled and virgin pulp are available in a range of finishes eg. Strathmore Premium Wove, Strathmore Premium Cambric and Keaykolour Recycled.

Coated papers
Coated papers made from recycled content are identical to their virgin fibre counterparts eg. Maine Recycled Gloss A2+ and Maine Recycled Silk A2+.

The Forest Stewardship Council’s mission is to promote responsible use of the world’s forests. Therefore, it makes sense that they can, and do, endorse the use of recycled papers.

FSC certification for recycled papers only applies to those that use 100% post consumer waste.

Generally, choosing between recycled and certified papers depends on what you prefer, and which is most suitable for your print job. Both recycled and certified papers have their advantages and disadvantages, and there are strong arguments for both.

Recycled paper requires less energy to convert paper into pulp than wood. It also reduces waste that would otherwise go to landfill. However, manufacturing recycled paper uses intensive chemical processes and requires extensive transportation for the waste paper to be delivered to de-inking plants. Often, waste paper is sent to overseas de-inking plants and then shipped back to paper manufacturers to be re-converted into paper.
Certified virgin fibre papers on the other hand, usually source pulp from one or two standard locations; therefore reducing transportation requirements. Specifying certified wood products also increases demand for responsible forestry. Responsible forestry plantations and re-planting programs can also increase carbon ‘locking’ or sequestration.

When making your decision, it is important to also look at the types of energy used to produce the paper. Some companies use coal fired energy (which has a negative impact on our environment), while others will utilise renewable energy.

We recommend that you contact your K.W. Doggett Fine Paper specialist to find out more about which paper best suits your requirements. They will be able to advise you about the manufacturing processes used to produce chosen stock and what accreditations and certifications are available.

Many different types of paper can be recycled; office paper, newspaper, magazines, coloured paper, cardboard to name a few. Some may prove to be more challenging to recycle than others. Paper with a plastic coating, windowed envelopes, or laminated papers are more awkward to recycle. Check with your local council or recycling operator for more information.

An FSC logo can only be displayed on FSC Certified paper and through a printer that holds an FSC Chain of Custody Certificate. These strict requirements are designed to ensure consistent and correct usage of FSC labels on products.

For more information visit our FSC page.


Paper

To make paper, pulp (cellulose fibres) is extracted from a raw material such as wood. The pulp is bleached to remove impurities resulting in improved whiteness of the paper. Next the pulp slurry (consisting of 95% water and 5% pulp) is poured onto the paper making machine where it travels quickly along a mesh/wire belt. This drying process removes water and causes the paper fibres to line up like logs floating down a river. A good line up of cellulose fibres creates better sheet formation, which is essential to achieving even print results.

Calendering is the final step in the paper making process and entails the paper being polished by a series of steel rollers before being wound onto reels.  The paper can then be supplied to the printer in reels or converted sheets.

The Paper Making Process – from pulp to paper

The-Paper-made-cycle

There are lots of paper options in the world.  Sometimes it can be a little confusing trying to decipher the paper you need. The quickest way to find the right stock is to speak to your favourite Paper Merchant (hello, Doggett’s!), however, our friends at Mohawk Paper have provided us with some quick questions to help get you thinking:

  • What is the intended use for the final piece and how long does it need to last?
  • Is the perception of quality important to your audience?
  • What kind of printing process will you use?
  • What kind of images are you printing and how important is the contrast? The more important the contrast – the whiter the paper you need.
  • Do you need envelopes? Check our envelope range.
  • Is text show through a concern? The answer effects the opacity you need.
  • Are mailing costs a concern?  Weigh a paper dummy, adding a bit more for ink to compare the mailing weight.
  • Do you or your client want to send an environmental message?
  • What is the deadline? Different papers dry at different speeds and can affect the turnaround time.
  • What is your budget? Paper usually accounts for up to 35% of total printing costs.

Download our Useful Paper Calculations.

To assist you, we have listed the number of A4, A3 and SRA3 pieces that can be cut from the most common parent sheet sizes. Check out our Economical Paper Cutting guide.

Download our full breakdown of A, B and C international paper sizes. Pictures and measurements can be a handy tool when communicating paper specifications to your printer, clients and even paper representative.

Download our Paper Size Guide.


Printing and finishing

Up to 200gsm can usually go through a laser printer easily. Heavier weighted paper; above 200gsm can be used, but prior testing is always recommended and mostly likely will require you to use the bypass or hand feed tray. To find out if your chosen paper is laser compatible, please check the inside cover of your paper swatch or review our Paper Range.

Our folding guide helps you to understand different folds for different kinds of paper.

Download our Folding Guide.

Paper, ink and coatings – like people, can crack under stress. For clean folds that resist tearing and cracking, we recommend scoring the paper first. Generally, the best results are achieved by scoring parallel along the grain of paper. For an item that requires folding in both directions, the primary fold should be along the grain.

Cross-grain folds are more likely to produce buckling and cracking, but they’re also stronger and more flexible. If you need extra durability, plan a cross-grain fold and remember to always specify a score. Note that a score has an embossed ridge (bead) on one side and a de-bossed indentation on the other side. Ensure that the bead is always on the inside of the fold.

Heavier boards need a wider and deeper score. Printers will often recommend channel scoring heavier boards for optimum folding results. Channel scoring entails creasing the board with a creasing knife on one side and pushing the board into a corresponding channel (groove) on the other side of the sheet. For projects with a high number of folds we recommend that the client, paper representative and printer meet at the outset of the job to discuss suitable options and costs.

Paper is made up of thousands of tiny cellulose fibres. When making paper, the process starts as a liquid slurry containing high volumes of water and a small amount of pulp. As the paper moves at high speed along the manufacturing process the tiny paper fibres line up, like logs in a river. The direction of which is known as grain direction.

Paper is easier to fold, bend or tear along the grain direction. Typically printing paper has a grain that runs along the long side of the paper to allow it to pass more easily through the printer. This is especially important for laser printing or high speed copying and should be taken into consideration when designing letterheads.

One or more of the following five tests will determine the grain direction of paper.

  1. Cut a sample about 2 inches square from a sheet, marking its original position on the sheet. Wet it. As it dries, it will curl. The grain is the direction of the curl.
  2. Moisten the corner of the sheet and press between the fingers. As the sheet dries, the edge across the grain will be wavy, the edge with the grain will be straight.
  3. Tear the sheet in two directions. It will tear straighter and cleaner with the grain.
  4. Fold the sheet in two directions. The paper folds easier and smoother with the grain.
  5. If the paper has a laid finish, the grain is usually parallel to the chain marks ie: the spaced lines. NB: This is not a conclusive test because paper is sometimes made with the chain marks running across the grain.

Business cards: Grain direction can make a significant difference to the strength of your business card. For a stiff rigid card ensure the grain runs along the long side of the rectangle. If you require a card that bends easily, run the grain along the shortest side, you may discuss this with your printer and specify on quote.

Laser printing: Long grain sheets of paper are preferred. Short grain sheets tend to curl around the rollers and can jam the machine.

Folding: It is better to score and fold with the grain. Folding against the grain may result in cracking.

Paper stretch: Paper tends to expand across the grain. It is best to feed the paper into the printer with the grain direction perpendicular to the feeding direction. This will eliminate print registration issues.

Our binding guide helps you find the binding you are looking for. Plus it may give you binding ideas you have yet to consider.

Download our Binding Guide.

We see GSM everywhere but what does it mean? GSM, or g/m2 is an abbreviation for grammage, or grams per square metre. It indicates the weight of a square metre of paper. Standard copy paper in Australia is approximately 80gsm, which means that a standard A4 sheet weighs approximately 5 grams, and a 500 sheet ream weighs 2.5kg.

Many people often confuse the weight of paper with the thickness. Two papers may both weigh 120gsm, but one may be a thick vellum style of paper containing air and bulk, whilst another may be highly calendered and tightly packed. Both are classified as 120gsm but feel and look completely different.

The K.W.Doggett Fine Paper swatches contains small samples of each of our papers and is the best way to assess which weight is suitable for your project. Alternatively, you can order samples online.

UMS is a measure of thickness and is most often used for board and packaging papers.

It can be a little daunting the first time you attend a press check, so we have put together this quick guide.  It is by no means the authority on press checking but it can help you get started.

We have found the key to a successful press check is communication and managing expectations.  Make sure you spend the time to get the proof right before the check, as a press operator’s task is to reproduce the proof, not the original artwork.  If you do intend to manage the colour on press, we advise you make notes on the proof and let the printer know in advance.

Download our Quick Tips for Press Checking Guide.

Making your work look good on screen is one thing, but making the same images work on press is another. Most printed material, particularly photographic images are printed using the standard 4 colour process, also known as CMYK. This means every colour in the image is created as a mix of the four inks; cyan, magenta, yellow and black (yes the K stands for black).

Computer screens, on the other hand, display colour using the RGB system. This means red, green and blue light combine to create the millions of colours on your monitor.  Herein lies one of the problems as to why your printed work looks different to what you see on screen. Your computer will be able to convert the RGB image into an approximation of CMYK. This conversion will give you a reasonably accurate preview of what the printed piece will look like, but it will not perfectly emulate your results on the press.
Certain colours translate better than others. Speak to your printer early in the design phase, don’t wait until the press check. A good printer will know which colours may cause you colour matching trouble, and a good paper merchant (cue Doggett’s) should be able to show you printed samples to give you a better idea of the possible results.

When a dot of ink hits the surface of paper, it has a tendency to spread as it is absorbed into the sheet. This characteristic, known as Dot Gain can, be controlled at the pre-press stage by reducing or ‘pinching’ the size of the dot to compensate for the expected increase.

You may hear your printer talk about Dot Gain curves*. ‘Curves’ are a set of pre-press adjustments (usually proprietary to the printer) that will accommodate for this natural ink gain caused by the different types of paper, printing equipment and the complexity of images. Proper curve adjustment by your printer leads to cleaner, crisper printing with brighter highlights and more detail in the shadows.

A printer can print a test file with 100 tonal steps, representing graduations in shade from one to 100. By using a densitometer, they can locate the values that create the desired tones. For example, dot gain might cause the 50% tone to occur at the 45% value; giving the printer the information to make the necessary curve adjustments.

Curves for coated paper will be different to that of uncoated paper and even between grades of uncoated papers, such as smooth and vellum. Your printer will develop their own set curves for each type of paper. Mill recommendations on colour curves and under colour removal are available for most uncoated papers and can be obtained by request.

* This infomation on Dot Gain curves was provided by the technical team at Mohawk Paper and has been extracted from the ‘Ask Mohawk Series’. For your copy of ‘The Naked Truth About Uncoated Paper’ please contact your nearest samples department.


Doggett Labels

Simply choose from our extensive range, then log onto our website and download your label template.

Some materials are specifically manufactured for offset printing and for laser printers, whereas some can be used on both. Others are made especially for HP Indigo printing. Please check you have the correct material and adhesive product for your application by calling one of our label experts or visiting our website.

Our standard paper labels have a general purpose permanent adhesive. We also supply labels with removable, freezer and high tack adhesives. Visit our website for our adhesive range and descriptions.

Yes we can. Call one of our label experts for more details.

What is the function of my label?

  • Is a permanent or removable label required?
  • Will my label be used indoors or outdoors?
  • How long is my label required for?

What substrate is my label being applied to?

  • What is the texture of the substrate’s surface? eg. glass: smooth/flat; carpet back: rough/uneven
  • Is the surface plastic, if so, what type? eg. PET, HDPE, LPE, PVC etc.
  • What is the shape of the substrate? eg. round, irregular, tight mandrel (syringe)

Is my application surface clean?

  • The cleanliness of the surface of the substrate will affect the ultimate adhesion of the label. Contamination from oil, grease, frost, dust and moisture can cause the label to fail.

Are there any special application or exposure conditions that my label must withstand?

  • Will it be exposed to solvent/cleaning agents, high degrees of humidity, moisture or UV light?
  • What is the application temperature of the label?
  • What is the service temperature of the label?
  • Will the label be exposed to deep freeze conditions?